Keenan, M. Human gut microbiota in obesity and after gastric bypass. In addition, differences in taxa abundance at the phylum level have little relevance when considering all their individual groups 21, This is consistent with previous reports indicating that activation of GPR43 in the adipose tissue by SCFAs protects against diet-induced obesity by suppressing insulin signaling as well as increasing the consumption of lipids Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. Figure 5. Figure 6. Rahat-Rozenbloom, S.
All authors reviewed and commented on the manuscript. Table 2 Taxonomic classification of pyrosequences from bacterial communities at the phylum and genus levels Full size table. However, comparisons of the gut bacterial communities between obese and lean subjects have produced conflicting results. The Microbiome and butyrate regulate energy metabolism and autophagy in the mammalian colon. Sci Rep. The present study highlights the HFD-induced population of phylum Proteobacteria and genus Bacteroides for ethanol production using FOS as a dietary supplement, and these findings may imply on the harmful effect of HFD even at the microbiota level. Butyrate is primarily used as an energy source for colonocytes and enterocytes. However, a recent study by Dalby et al.
Adiponectin and resistin are typically secreted by the adipose tissue and are abnormally expressed in obesity. However, the underlying influential factors and mechanisms are to be elucidated. It is well known that the expression of genes is regulated by epigenetics while gut microbiota participates in epigenetic processes through its metabolites such as folate, biotin, and short-chain fatty acids SCFAs. Therefore, we supposed that alteration of gut microbiota might affect the transcriptional expression of adiponectin and resistin through epigenetic regulation in obesity. Fecal microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing. SCFA contents in feces were examined using gas chromatography. Alteration of gut microbiota induced by antibiotic use may affect the expression of adiponectin and resistin in mice fed the high-fat diet by modifying promoter DNA methylation, thus leading to increased fatty acid oxidation and less body weight gain.
Several studies involving mouse models and humans have shown an increased proportion of Firmicutes and reduced Mouse in obesity and significant increases in Bacteroidetes along with weight loss scf, 21, 22, 41, 42, whereas others have diet no changes in these two phyla or even reported the opposite high 23, 43, 44, From dietary scfa to host physiology: short-chain fatty acids as key bacterial metabolites. Diabetes Metab J. Supplementary Table S1.